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A look at a letter supposedly written by William Shakespeare to his wife, Anne Hathaway; it was, in fact, faked by William-Henry Ireland. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.
Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: forgery: Instances of literary forgery. William Henry Ireland died , the Shakespeare forger, used flyleaves from 16th-century books, but his handwriting and non-Shakespearean language gave him away.
A modern would-be forger must either copy an existing work, which, in the present state of art history and paleographical study, would be….
The geography of Ireland comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland.
Its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate which is free of extremes in temperature.
Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant. The earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10, BC.
The island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Anglo-Norman invasion , England claimed sovereignty.
However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th—17th century Tudor conquest , which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain.
In the s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters , and was extended during the 18th century.
A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island , creating the Irish Free State , which became increasingly sovereign over the following decades, and Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late s until the s. This subsided following a political agreement in Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the field of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture , a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games , Irish music and the Irish language.
The island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language , and sports such as association football , rugby , horse racing , and golf.
During the last glacial period , and until about 10, BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16, BC, rising sea levels caused by ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. An extensive field system , arguably the oldest in the world,  consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls.
The fields were farmed for several centuries between BC and BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops.
How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that also included Britain, western France and Iberia, and that this is where Celtic languages developed.
The long-standing traditional view is that the Celtic language, Ogham script and culture were brought to Ireland by waves of invading or migrating Celts from mainland Europe.
The theory holds that there were four separate Celtic invasions of Ireland. The Priteni were said to be the first, followed by the Belgae from northern Gaul and Britain.
Later, Laighin tribes from Armorica present-day Brittany were said to have invaded Ireland and Britain more or less simultaneously.
Lastly, the Milesians Gaels were said to have reached Ireland from either northern Iberia or southern Gaul. They were said to have given their name to the island.
The theory was advanced in part because of lack of archaeological evidence for large-scale Celtic immigration , though it is accepted that such movements are notoriously difficult to identify.
Historical linguists are skeptical that this method alone could account for the absorption of Celtic language, with some saying that an assumed processional view of Celtic linguistic formation is 'an especially hazardous exercise'.
When taking both into account, a study concluded that modern Celtic speakers in Ireland could be thought of as European "Atlantic Celts" showing a shared ancestry throughout the Atlantic zone from northern Iberia to western Scandinavia rather than substantially central European.
In , research showed that occurrence of genetic markers for the earliest farmers was almost eliminated by Beaker-culture immigrants: they carried what was then a new Y-chromosome R1b marker, believed to have originated in Iberia about BC.
A similar genetic replacement happened with lineages in mitochondrial DNA. The earliest written records of Ireland come from classical Greco-Roman geographers.
These 'new' names were likely to have been the local names for the islands at the time. The earlier names, in contrast , were likely to have been coined before direct contact with local peoples was made.
However, a number of finds of Roman coins have been made, for example at the Iron Age settlement of Freestone Hill near Gowran and Newgrange.
Ireland continued as a patchwork of rival kingdoms; however, beginning in the 7th century, a concept of national kingship gradually became articulated through the concept of a High King of Ireland.
Medieval Irish literature portrays an almost unbroken sequence of high kings stretching back thousands of years, but modern historians believe the scheme was constructed in the 8th century to justify the status of powerful political groupings by projecting the origins of their rule into the remote past.
All of the Irish kingdoms had their own kings but were nominally subject to the high king. The high king was drawn from the ranks of the provincial kings and ruled also the royal kingdom of Meath , with a ceremonial capital at the Hill of Tara.
The concept did not become a political reality until the Viking Age and even then was not a consistent one. There is continued debate over the missions of Palladius and Patrick, but the consensus is that they both took place  and that the older druid tradition collapsed in the face of the new religion.
The arts of manuscript illumination , metalworking and sculpture flourished and produced treasures such as the Book of Kells , ornate jewellery and the many carved stone crosses  that still dot the island today.
A mission founded in on Iona by the Irish monk Saint Columba began a tradition of Irish missionary work that spread Celtic Christianity and learning to Scotland , England and the Frankish Empire on continental Europe after the fall of Rome.
From the 9th century, waves of Viking raiders plundered Irish monasteries and towns. The Vikings were involved in establishing most of the major coastal settlements in Ireland: Dublin , Limerick , Cork , Wexford , Waterford , as well as other smaller settlements.
On 1 May , an expedition of Cambro - Norman knights, with an army of about men, landed at Bannow Strand in present-day County Wexford.
It was led by Richard de Clare , known as 'Strongbow' owing to his prowess as an archer. In , Henry arrived in Ireland in order to review the general progress of the expedition.
He wanted to re-exert royal authority over the invasion which was expanding beyond his control. Henry successfully re-imposed his authority over Strongbow and the Cambro-Norman warlords and persuaded many of the Irish kings to accept him as their overlord, an arrangement confirmed in the Treaty of Windsor.
The bull encouraged Henry to take control in Ireland in order to oversee the financial and administrative reorganisation of the Irish Church and its integration into the Roman Church system.
Henry was authorised to impose a tithe of one penny per hearth as an annual contribution. This church levy, called Peter's Pence , is extant in Ireland as a voluntary donation.
In turn, Henry accepted the title of Lord of Ireland which Henry conferred on his younger son, John Lackland , in This defined the Irish state as the Lordship of Ireland.
Over the century that followed, Norman feudal law gradually replaced the Gaelic Brehon Law so that by the late 13th century the Norman-Irish had established a feudal system throughout much of Ireland.
Norman settlements were characterised by the establishment of baronies, manors, towns and the seeds of the modern county system. From the midth century, after the Black Death , Norman settlements in Ireland went into a period of decline.
The Norman rulers and the Gaelic Irish elites intermarried and the areas under Norman rule became Gaelicised.
In some parts, a hybrid Hiberno-Norman culture emerged. In response, the Irish parliament passed the Statutes of Kilkenny in These were a set of laws designed to prevent the assimilation of the Normans into Irish society by requiring English subjects in Ireland to speak English, follow English customs and abide by English law.
By the end of the 15th century, central English authority in Ireland had all but disappeared, and a renewed Irish culture and language, albeit with Norman influences, was dominant again.
English Crown control remained relatively unshaken in an amorphous foothold around Dublin known as The Pale , and under the provisions of Poynings' Law of , the Irish Parliamentary legislation was subject to the approval of the English Privy Council.
English rule was reinforced and expanded in Ireland during the latter part of the 16th century, leading to the Tudor conquest of Ireland.
A near-complete conquest was achieved by the turn of the 17th century, following the Nine Years' War and the Flight of the Earls. This control was consolidated during the wars and conflicts of the 17th century, including the English and Scottish colonisation in the Plantations of Ireland , the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Williamite War.
Irish losses during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms which, in Ireland, included the Irish Confederacy and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland are estimated to include 20, battlefield casualties.
A further 50, [Note 1] were sent into indentured servitude in the West Indies. Physician-general William Petty estimated that , Catholic Irish and , Protestant settlers died, and , people were transported, as a result of the war.
The religious struggles of the 17th century left a deep sectarian division in Ireland. Religious allegiance now determined the perception in law of loyalty to the Irish King and Parliament.
After the passing of the Test Act , and the victory of the forces of the dual monarchy of William and Mary over the Jacobites , Roman Catholics and nonconforming Protestant Dissenters were barred from sitting as members in the Irish Parliament.
Under the emerging Penal Laws , Irish Roman Catholics and Dissenters were increasingly deprived of various and sundry civil rights even to the ownership of hereditary property.
Additional regressive punitive legislation followed in , and This completed a comprehensive systemic effort to materially disadvantage Roman Catholics and Protestant Dissenters, while enriching a new ruling class of Anglican conformists.
The " Great Frost " struck Ireland and the rest of Europe between December and September , after a decade of relatively mild winters.
The winters destroyed stored crops of potatoes and other staples, and the poor summers severely damaged harvests. An estimated , people about one in eight of the population died from the ensuing pestilence and disease.
In the aftermath of the famine, an increase in industrial production and a surge in trade brought a succession of construction booms.
The population soared in the latter part of this century and the architectural legacy of Georgian Ireland was built. In , Poynings' Law was repealed, giving Ireland legislative independence from Great Britain for the first time since The British government, however, still retained the right to nominate the government of Ireland without the consent of the Irish parliament.
In , members of the Protestant Dissenter tradition mainly Presbyterian made common cause with Roman Catholics in a republican rebellion inspired and led by the Society of United Irishmen , with the aim of creating an independent Ireland.
Despite assistance from France the rebellion was put down by British and Irish government and yeomanry forces.
The passage of the Act in the Irish Parliament was ultimately achieved with substantial majorities, having failed on the first attempt in According to contemporary documents and historical analysis, this was achieved through a considerable degree of bribery, with funding provided by the British Secret Service Office, and the awarding of peerages, places and honours to secure votes.
Aside from the development of the linen industry, Ireland was largely passed over by the industrial revolution , partly because it lacked coal and iron resources   and partly because of the impact of the sudden union with the structurally superior economy of England,  which saw Ireland as a source of agricultural produce and capital.
The Great Famine of — devastated Ireland, as in those years Ireland's population fell by one-third. More than one million people died from starvation and disease, with an additional million people emigrating during the famine, mostly to the United States and Canada.
The period of civil unrest that followed until the end of the 19th century is referred to as the Land War. Mass emigration became deeply entrenched and the population continued to decline until the midth century.
Immediately prior to the famine the population was recorded as 8. The 19th and early 20th centuries saw the rise of modern Irish nationalism , primarily among the Roman Catholic population.
He was elected as Member of Parliament for Ennis in a surprise result and despite being unable to take his seat as a Roman Catholic.
O'Connell spearheaded a vigorous campaign that was taken up by the Prime Minister, the Irish-born soldier and statesman, the Duke of Wellington.
George's father had opposed the plan of the earlier Prime Minister, Pitt the Younger , to introduce such a bill following the Union of , fearing Catholic Emancipation to be in conflict with the Act of Settlement Daniel O'Connell led a subsequent campaign, for the repeal of the Act of Union, which failed.
Unionists, especially those located in Ulster, were strongly opposed to Home Rule, which they thought would be dominated by Catholic interests. To prevent this from happening, the Ulster Volunteers were formed in under the leadership of Edward Carson.
Their formation was followed in by the establishment of the Irish Volunteers , whose aim was to ensure that the Home Rule Bill was passed.
The Act was passed but with the "temporary" exclusion of the six counties of Ulster that would become Northern Ireland.
Before it could be implemented, however, the Act was suspended for the duration of the First World War. The Irish Volunteers split into two groups.
The majority, approximately , in number, under John Redmond , took the name National Volunteers and supported Irish involvement in the war.
A minority, approximately 13,, retained the Irish Volunteers' name and opposed Ireland's involvement in the war. The Easter Rising of was carried out by the latter group together with a smaller socialist militia, the Irish Citizen Army.
The British response, executing fifteen leaders of the Rising over a period of ten days and imprisoning or interning more than a thousand people, turned the mood of the country in favour of the rebels.
Support for Irish republicanism increased further due to the ongoing war in Europe, as well as the Conscription Crisis of Simultaneously the Volunteers, which became known as the Irish Republican Army IRA , launched a three-year guerrilla war , which ended in a truce in July although violence continued until June , mostly in Northern Ireland.
It gave Ireland complete independence in its home affairs and practical independence for foreign policy, but an opt-out clause allowed Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom, which as expected it immediately exercised.
Additionally, Members of the Free State Parliament were required to swear an oath of allegiance to the Constitution of the Irish Free State and make a statement of faithfulness to the King.
The civil war officially ended in May when de Valera issued a cease-fire order. During its first decade, the newly formed Irish Free State was governed by the victors of the civil war.
When de Valera achieved power, he took advantage of the Statute of Westminster and political circumstances to build upon inroads to greater sovereignty made by the previous government.
The oath was abolished and in a new constitution was adopted. However, it was not until that the state was declared, officially, to be the Republic of Ireland.
The state was neutral during World War II , but offered clandestine assistance to the Allies , particularly in the potential defence of Northern Ireland.
Despite their country's neutrality, approximately 50,  volunteers from independent Ireland joined the British forces during the war, four being awarded Victoria Crosses.
The German intelligence was also active in Ireland. To the authorities, counterintelligence was a fundamental line of defence. With a regular army of only slightly over seven thousand men at the start of the war, and with limited supplies of modern weapons, the state would have had great difficulty in defending itself from invasion from either side in the conflict.
Large-scale emigration marked most of the post-WWII period particularly during the s and s , but beginning in the economy improved, and the s saw the beginning of substantial economic growth.
This period of growth became known as the Celtic Tiger. In , it was the sixth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita.
Foster argues the cause was a combination of a new sense of initiative and the entry of American corporations.
He concludes the chief factors were low taxation, pro-business regulatory policies, and a young, tech-savvy workforce. For many multinationals, the decision to do business in Ireland was made easier still by generous incentives from the Industrial Development Authority.
In addition European Union membership was helpful, giving the country lucrative access to markets that it had previously reached only through the United Kingdom, and pumping huge subsidies and investment capital into the Irish economy.
Modernisation brought secularisation in its wake. The traditionally high levels of religiosity have sharply declined. Foster points to three factors: Irish feminism, largely imported from America with liberal stances on contraception, abortion, and divorce undermined the authority of bishops and priests.
Second, the mishandling of the pedophile scandals humiliated the Church, whose bishops seemed less concerned with the victims and more concerned with covering up for errant priests.
Third, prosperity brought hedonism and materialism that undercut the ideals of saintly poverty. The financial crisis that began in dramatically ended this period of boom.
Northern Ireland resulted from the division of the United Kingdom by the Government of Ireland Act , and until was a self-governing jurisdiction within the United Kingdom with its own parliament and prime minister.
Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom, was not neutral during the Second World War, and Belfast suffered four bombing raids in Conscription was not extended to Northern Ireland, and roughly an equal number volunteered from Northern Ireland as volunteered from the south.
Although Northern Ireland was largely spared the strife of the civil war, in decades that followed partition there were sporadic episodes of inter-communal violence.
Nationalists, mainly Roman Catholic, wanted to unite Ireland as an independent republic, whereas unionists, mainly Protestant, wanted Northern Ireland to remain in the United Kingdom.
The Protestant and Catholic communities in Northern Ireland voted largely along sectarian lines, meaning that the government of Northern Ireland elected by "first-past-the-post" from was controlled by the Ulster Unionist Party.
Over time, the minority Catholic community felt increasingly alienated with further disaffection fuelled by practices such as gerrymandering and discrimination in housing and employment.
In the late s, nationalist grievances were aired publicly in mass civil rights protests, which were often confronted by loyalist counter-protests.
Law and order broke down as unrest and inter-communal violence increased. In , the paramilitary Provisional IRA , which favoured the creation of a united Ireland , emerged from a split in the Irish Republican Army and began a campaign against what it called the "British occupation of the six counties".
Other groups, on both the unionist side and the nationalist side, participated in violence and a period known as the Troubles began.
Over 3, deaths resulted over the subsequent three decades of conflict. There were several unsuccessful attempts to end the Troubles politically, such as the Sunningdale Agreement of In , following a ceasefire by the Provisional IRA and multi-party talks, the Good Friday Agreement was concluded as a treaty between the British and Irish governments, annexing the text agreed in the multi-party talks.
The substance of the Agreement formally referred to as the Belfast Agreement was later endorsed by referendums in both parts of Ireland. The Agreement restored self-government to Northern Ireland on the basis of power-sharing in a regional Executive drawn from the major parties in a new Northern Ireland Assembly , with entrenched protections for the two main communities.
The Executive is jointly headed by a First Minister and deputy First Minister drawn from the unionist and nationalist parties.
Violence had decreased greatly after the Provisional IRA and loyalist ceasefires in and in the Provisional IRA announced the end of its armed campaign and an independent commission supervised its disarmament and that of other nationalist and unionist paramilitary organisations.
The Assembly and power-sharing Executive were suspended several times but were restored again in In that year the British government officially ended its military support of the police in Northern Ireland Operation Banner and began withdrawing troops.
The island is divided between the Republic of Ireland, an independent state , and Northern Ireland a constituent country of the United Kingdom. They share an open border and both are part of the Common Travel Area.
The Republic of Ireland is a member of the European Union while the United Kingdom is a former member, having both acceded to its precursor entity, the European Economic Community [EEC], in , and as a consequence there is free movement of people, goods, services and capital across the border.
The Republic of Ireland is a parliamentary democracy based on the British model, with a written constitution and a popularly elected president who has mostly ceremonial powers.
Its capital is Dublin. The republic today ranks amongst the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita  and in was ranked the sixth most developed nation in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index.
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom with a local executive and assembly which exercise devolved powers. The executive is jointly headed by the first and deputy first minister, with the ministries being allocated in proportion with each party's representation in the assembly.
Its capital is Belfast. Ultimately political power is held by the UK government , from which Northern Ireland has gone through intermittent periods of direct rule during which devolved powers have been suspended.
The Northern Ireland Secretary is a cabinet-level post in the British government. Along with England and Wales and with Scotland, Northern Ireland forms one of the three separate legal jurisdictions of the UK, all of which share the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom as their court of final appeal.
As part of the Good Friday Agreement, the British and Irish governments agreed on the creation of all-island institutions and areas of cooperation.
At least six of these policy areas must have an associated all-island "implementation bodies," and at least six others must be implemented separately in each jurisdiction.
The British—Irish Intergovernmental Conference provides for co-operation between the Government of Ireland and the Government of the United Kingdom on all matters of mutual interest, especially Northern Ireland.
In light of the Republic's particular interest in the governance of Northern Ireland, "regular and frequent" meetings co-chaired by the ROI Minister for Foreign Affairs and the UK Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, dealing with non-devolved matters to do with Northern Ireland and non-devolved all-Ireland issues, are required to take place under the establishing treaty.
It has no formal powers but operates as a forum for discussing matters of common concern between the respective legislatures. Despite the two jurisdictions using two distinct currencies the euro and pound sterling , a growing amount of commercial activity is carried out on an all-Ireland basis.
This has been facilitated by the two jurisdictions' shared membership of the European Union, and there have been calls from members of the business community and policymakers for the creation of an "all-Ireland economy" to take advantage of economies of scale and boost competitiveness.
Dublin is the most heavily touristed region  and home to several of the most popular attractions such as the Guinness Storehouse and Book of Kells.
Achill Island lies off the coast of County Mayo and is Ireland's largest island. It is a popular tourist destination for surfing and contains 5 Blue Flag beaches and Croaghaun one of the worlds highest sea cliffs.
Stately homes , built during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries in Palladian , Neoclassical and neo-Gothic styles, such as Castle Ward , Castletown House , Bantry House , and Glenveagh Castle are also of interest to tourists.
Giant's Causeway , County Antrim. Skellig Michael , County Kerry. Newgrange , County Meath. Ireland has an ancient industry based on peat known locally as "turf" as a source of energy for home fires.
A form of biomass energy, this source of heat is still widely used in rural areas. However, because of the ecological importance of peatlands in storing carbon and their rarity, the EU is attempting to protect this habitat by fining Ireland for digging up peat.
In cities, heat is generally supplied by natural gas or heating oil , although some urban suppliers distribute sods of turf as "smokeless fuel" for domestic use.
The island operates as a single market for electricity. Both networks were designed and constructed independently post-partition.
However, they are now connected with three interlinks  and also connected through Great Britain to mainland Europe.
The situation in Northern Ireland is complicated by the issue of private companies not supplying Northern Ireland Electricity with enough power.
As with electricity, the natural gas distribution network is also now all-island, with a pipeline linking Gormanston, County Meath , and Ballyclare , County Antrim.
Supplies come from the Corrib Gas Field , off the coast of County Mayo, with a decreasing supply coming from the Kinsale gas field off the County Cork coast.
The Republic has a strong commitment to renewable energy and ranks as one of the top 10 markets for clean-technology investment in the Global Green Economy Index.
Large wind farms have been constructed in Cork, Donegal, Mayo and Antrim. The construction of wind farms has in some cases been delayed by opposition from local communities, some of whom regard the wind turbines as unsightly.
The Republic is hindered by an ageing network that was not designed to handle the varying availability of power that comes from wind farms.
Prior to partition in , Ireland had a long history as an economic colony - first of the Norse 9th to 10th centuries CE , and later of England.
Though the climate and soil favoured certain forms of agriculture,  trade barriers frequently hobbled its development. Repeated invasions and "plantations" disrupted land-ownership , and multiple failed uprisings also contributed to repeated phases of deportation and of emigration.
As the term British Isles is controversial in relation to Ireland, the alternate term Britain and Ireland is often used as a neutral term for the islands.
A ring of coastal mountains surround low plains at the centre of the island. The island consists of varied geological provinces. In the west, around County Galway and County Donegal , is a medium to high grade metamorphic and igneous complex of Caledonide affinity, similar to the Scottish Highlands.
Across southeast Ulster and extending southwest to Longford and south to Navan is a province of Ordovician and Silurian rocks, with similarities to the Southern Uplands province of Scotland.
Further south, along the County Wexford coastline, is an area of granite intrusives into more Ordovician and Silurian rocks, like that found in Wales.
Enigma Press. Lynch, Jack Princeton University Library Chronicle. Princeton University Library. LXVI I : 79— In Ehland, Christoph; Fajen, Robert eds.
Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag. Walker Books. Pierce, Patricia Schoenbaum, Samuel Shakespeare and Others. Washington: Folger Books. Shakespeare's Lives.
Oxford: Clarendon Press. Stewart, Doug Da Capo Press. Wilkie, Vanessa 22 April Retrieved 26 October Categories : births deaths 18th-century British novelists 18th-century British dramatists and playwrights 19th-century British novelists 18th-century English criminals Forgers Writers from London Writers of Gothic fiction Criminals from London Publishers people from London.
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